ethical theories in nursing

Some ethical theories that influence nursing practice are Consequentialism, Deontology, Ethical Relativism, Utilitarianism theory, Teleology, Virtue ethics, and Justice and equity. It is to examining the content, prescriptive force and application of these principles that this discussion now turns. Each one of these theories looks at our ethical behavior in different ways. Mappes, T.A. These theories truly help protect not only the patients being cared for but also the nurses caring for those patients. An example of fidelity would be keeping a promise to a patient of coming back to check on them even if they become slammed with a heavy workload. Virtue theorists also emphasize the need for people to learn how to break bad habits of character, such as greed or anger.  2. The Advantages of Ethical Theories in Nursing. Depending on the school, student nurses can choose to earn a minor or certificate in ethics. 2). An ethical person must always follow the rules, even if doing so causes a less desirable outcome. ID # Ethical Theories Act Utilitarianism Act Utilitarianism is a consequentialist theory for the reason that it conforms ethically right actions, the actions we are forced to perform, are selected by determining the outcomes that those actions are expected to produce. also offered here. nursing ethics the values and ethical principles … The Term Paper on Ethical theory and decision making in practice A nurse who knows the ethical theories and furthermore applies them in the field will have better client outcomes and prevent errors that can cause harm to a client in any way shape or form. Nursing Science is an identifiable discrete body of knowledge comprising paradigms, frameworks and theories. Veracity as a word is associated with truthfulness. 6 key ethical principles of nursing. Nursing students learn about ethics during the course of their nursing education. Nurses who can find agreement between personal and professional ethics will be most successful at maintaining their integrity and moral character. According to Wilkes University, these 6 specific principles of healthcare ethics should be adhered to in every situation. 4). Nursing ethics first appeared in textbooks in the late 19th century. It is essential of nurses to be well versed in the ethical principles and even more so in ethical theories to help guide them in their decision making when caring for clients. The integration of nursing theories into practice demonstrates an evolutionary pathway for introducing a paradigm shift in the essence of the science of nursing. The answer is their ethical duty, meaning every nurse is guided by ethical theories and principles which help guide them as a patient advocate. Ethical Theories of Nursing. National and international nursing organizations provide ethical guidelines for nurses. Many families will leave a person to help at times, but it’s the hospital’s legal obligation to discover an interpreter for continued understanding by the client to be sure the client is completely informed and comprehends in her or his main language. Although this theory has been largely rejected it is still valuable for a nurse to consider when caring for their patients. The Importance of Ethical Theories and Principle in Decision Making for Nurses The Importance of Ethical Theories and Principle in Decision Making for Nurses. Fidelity is synonymous with faithfulness and is therefore achieved by remaining loyal, fair, and truthful to patient and encompassing the idea of being a patient advocate. Ethics affects all areas of nursing practice, and it is not always straightforward to decide if one management option is definitely without risk to the patient. The Ethics of Caring collaboration has been stimulating ethical discussions and providing ethical education for nurses and other healthcare providers since 1993. A nurse must keep in mind that ethical standards are relative to person, place, time, and culture. All Rights Reserved. Help. All About Ethical Theories in Nursing A nurse faced with this kind of situation may look for advice from the institution’s ethics committee so as to determine the right plan of action. In the area of nursing theory Lawrence Kohlberg’s theories of moral development are very influential. As patient advocates, nurses work as part of an interdisciplinary team to provide patient care. Don’t waste Your Time Searching For a Sample, Get Your Job Done By a Professional Skilled Writer. This theory is placing more value on the intentions of the individual as opposed to the actual outcome of any action. This means the nurse would have to resist the urge to interject his or her own feelings, values or beliefs onto the patient. Get a verified writer to help you with Ethical Theories of Nursing. As mentioned previously, Rae suggests that ethics are a process that is both an art and a science. Nonmaleficence literally translates to “do no harm” and is a concept that originated from the Hippocratic Oath. These are the main principles of ethics as far as it pertains to nursing and knowing this information is vital to understanding ethical theories and how to better apply them as a practicing nurse. Nursing ethics will remain an important aspect of the nursing profession. These are called vices and stand in the way of becoming a good person. The utilitarianism approach requires that you decide what course of action needs to be done and evaluate the outcomes of each action. Nurses who are comfortable with their morals and let ethics guide their decisions will be well equipped to provide patient care. As mentioned earlier some of the Ethical theories are Consequentialism, Deontology, Ethical Relativism, Teleology, Virtue ethics, and Justice and equity. Ethical nursing practice is enhanced through collaborative discussion at conferences and conventions. It is pivotal for nurses because it will ensure that they are preforming their jobs and duties with the highest regard to patient advocacy and maintain the ethics which nursing is based on. (1986) Biomedical Ethics and Ethical Theory. 5 pages, 2217 words. Nurses may find themselves in a position to make an ethical choice to provide care to a stranger should they come upon a car wreck or should a fellow airplane passenger experience a heart attack. Ethical Principle and Confidentiality. different careers. In order to better understand how these theories and principles shape the practice of nursing you must better understand what they mean. On the back side of this theory there is a criticism in healthcare that applying a strictly deontological approach to healthcare can lead to conflicts of interest between equally entitled individuals which can be difficult or even seemingly impossible to resolve (“Ethical Theories,” n.d. para. Nursing ethics differ from medical ethics because of their focus on caring, rather than curing. Paternalism is a negative principle of nursing and is implied when a nurse does not respect the patients’ right to autonomy by making decisions for the patient because he or she thinks she knows what’s best for that patient (Sliva & Ludwick, 1999). This article will explore and summarise the four main ethical theories that have relevance for healthcare assistants. 4.9 Consequentialist ethics refers to the idea that the correct moral response is always going to be related to the outcome, or consequence, of the act. (2016, May 07). Nurses can use the ethics board as a resource if they are faced with a situation that calls their personal morals into question. Right and wrong is not definite in most cases as there are no absolute truths. The ethical principles of nursing are Autonomy, Beneficence, Fidelity, Informed consent, Integrity, Justice, Nonmaleficence, Paternalism, Veracity, as well as Privacy and confidentiality. The ethics of nursing are influenced by moral development, as nurses must develop a strong system of morals in order to uphold the strict ethics required of them. Two of the largest nursing organizations, the International Council of Nurses and American Nurses Association provide a code of ethics for nurses. A brief description of some of these terms will be given before their influence on nurses is discussed. While there are no universal truths in ethical relativism there are few topics that are not open to debate, such as incest (American Nurses Association, 2011). This means giving truthful information about the risks of a procedure while still respecting the patient’s confidentiality. Consequentialism, also referred to as utilitarianism, seems simple enough to understand as the word “consequence” is evident. While polar opposites on the broad spectrum of ethics, deontology and utilitarianism are bioethical theories that can be applied to nursing practice and personal life situations. We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. Students with additional education in ethics will be knowledgeable about different ethical theories including virtue ethics, ethics of care and deontological ethics. Nursing ethics first appeared in textbooks in the late 19th century. These are: utilitarianism, deontology, virtue ethics and principlism. Ethical Theories. The two major ethics theories in Nursing, which identify and rationalize moral rules and principles, are Deontology and Utilitarianism. These situations are times when nurses must employ their personal and professional ethical decision making skills to determine how they should respond. The ethics board is a committee of health care providers who help to resolve ethical issues that arise in hospitals. Nurses apply this principle by not causing injury, being either physical, psychological, emotiona, or financial (“Ethical Principles,” n.d., para. Retrieved from http://studymoose.com/ethical-theories-of-nursing-essay, Copying content is not allowed on this website, Ask a professional writer to help you with your text, Give us your email and we'll send you the essay you need, Please indicate where to send you the sample. Nurses who are knowledgeable about ethical theories may be better prepared for ethical nursing practice as they will have a more thorough knowledge of which ethical approach will be most appropriate in a given situation. To aid in ethical decision making, many hospitals have an ethics board. This ethical theory is meant to protect the less privileged people in society and give them access to fair and equal healthcare access without bias from the healthcare members caring for them. Ethics are important to the nursing profession. Autonomy refers to the patients’ own rights to make decisions about their healthcare, health, and lives without the interference from healthcare personnel such as the physician, the nurse, or other team members. The ethical principles of nursing are Autonomy, Beneficence, Fidelity, Informed consent, Integrity, Justice, Nonmaleficence, Paternalism, Veracity, as well as Privacy and confidentiality. If a nurse is better educated on the culture of their client and what is considered normal or taboo they will be better equipped to provide excellent care in that persons eyes without infringing on their culture or having a biased opinion of them. The identified elements of the ethical dimension include ethical theories and principles, values, ethical practice issues, … This means that accurate information must be provided to the patient in order to make an informed decision. Yet, one must recognize the ethical components of practice to engage in structured ethical decisions. Grand nursing theories are abstract and can be applied to many different situations. Albert Schweitzer, German medical missionary, theologian, musician, and philosopher (1875-1965) Ethical Rights & Responsibilities of Nurses “Ethical problems deal with issues of great significance to those involved and, by their nature, have no easy or obvious solutions. A nurse may not be legally bound to provide care, but may have an ethical obligation to help. The nursing professional practice is guided by the ethical theories and principles, hence the significance of this concept. Nursing ethics initially encompassed virtues that were desired in a nurse. Ethical judgements need to be made based on the best available evidence, with respect to the rights of the individual, and through careful balancing of risks … The theory states that a “veil of ignorance” should be worn regarding who is affected by a decision and should be used by all decision makers because it allows for unbiased decision making. (348), 4.9 ETHICSETHICS ACTION INTENTION UTILITY 4. Now that all of the ethical principles have been defined it is easier to make sense of how the ethical theories came about for our healthcare system and all the members of the healthcare team taking care of the patients. Grand nursing theories are global in their application to nursing and have been instrumental in developing the science of nursing (McEwen & Wills, 2014). To a layperson some of these words may make sense and others may not. Students looking for free, top-notch essay and term paper samples on various topics. Ethical dilemmas may arise out of patient care situations or interactions with co-workers. The nurse must take on the fact that whatever a person thinks is right, is right. In this paper the core ethical theories and principles will be discussed and how exactly this helps RN’s be the best possible advocate and what benefits the clients themselves derive from these ethical theories. It is these ethics that make a nurse so valuable to clients and ultimately makes a nurse the client’s best advocate. All the ethical theories such as teleological theories and deontological theory have implications in the practice of nursing care. Ethics can also come into play when a nurse is off-duty. This principle was made more evident with the passing of the Patient Self Determination Act by Congress in 1990 (“Ethical Principles,” n.d., para. Although there was a heated discussion between the surgeon and the nursing staff, each member of the staff had good intentions, but the outcome was not so good. Different forms of consequentialism describe different standards and methods for weighing those consequences. Ethical TheoriesEthical Theories PIR BUXPIR BUX 25-08-201425-08-2014 2. There can be a backside to this theory however which can cause acts that would be contrary to the rights of individuals if the end result is one that would improve care for many others, this is referring back to the theory of doing the greatest good for the greatest amount of people. Your Answer is very helpful for Us Thank you a lot! ObjectivesObjectives  Discuss ethical principles in health care in the light of ethical theories. Additional materials, such as the best quotations, synonyms and word definitions to make your writing easier are Graduate nursing students may choose to write a thesis or dissertation on an ethical component of nursing practice. Ethical reflection aids nurses in identifying personal biases and reinforces moral foundations. An ethical person should choose the action that is fair to all, including both the advantaged and disadvantaged groups in society. Nursing in Canada is a self-regulating profession; thus, nurses are bound to a code of ethics as part of a regulatory process that serves and protects the public. Deontology is simply following the moral theory of doing unto others as you would want them to do unto you. This idea can also be thought of in a way that if a decision must be made it would be wisest to make the decision with the central aim of doing the maximum amount of greatest good for the greatest number of people. This theory is in place to protect those less fortunate people and is essential to all of society to keep the balance and fairness when it comes to healthcare. This principle also involves taking actions to help benefit others and prevent both physical and mental harm of the patient. Virtue ethics is different from other ethical theories in that it places much less emphasis on which rules people should follow and instead focuses on helping people develop good character traits, such as kindness and generosity. Importance of Ethical Theory in Nursing The Importance Of Acting Ethically When Working As A Nurse. In the current society people face some shape or kind of dilemma and it might be a personal, ethical, or moral dilemma. In order to properly understand the ethical theories of nursing one must first know what the core ethical principles and theories in nursing are. Conference attendees can meet with healthcare providers from across the country and share ethical issues, ideas and dilemmas. When people think of who it is taking care of them and making them better they specifically think of Doctors and Nurses. As Doctors and more specifically Registered Nurses it is their duty to have a client’s best interest in mind and always act in their benefit. This raises the question, what guides Nurses to maintain this mindset of always putting the patient first? © Copyright 2020 Alice Petiprin, Nursing-Theory.org. They help nurses distinguish between right and wrong when the correct path is unclear. In the field of nursing, Gilligan’s theory and related feminist moral philosophy 4,5 were initially accepted with enthusiasm, as it theoretically captured the essence of caring embedded in patient–nurse relationships and explained the ethical difficulties nurses encountered in medically dominated healthcare contexts. Nurses should be familiar with the ethics of the nursing profession, but also be comfortable with their own ethical code. Ethical theories NURSING ETHICS 1. SLIDE 3 – FORMS OF ETHICAL THEORIES For individuals, the ethical theory they employ for decision making guidance emphasizes aspects of an ethical dilemma important to them and leads them to the most ethically correct resolution according to the guidelines within the ethical theory itself. At times, nurses may be asked to do things by other health care providers or employers that are out of their comfort zone. Current ethical hot topics in nursing include assisting in abortions, flu-shot requirements for nurses and end-of-life issues. Discuss the... 3. There are three types of normative theories: virtue theories, deontological theories, and teleological theories. It is essential for these theories to be understood and applied by nurses all across the world in order to attain the best results for patients and the future of our healthcare system. While professional ethical codes vary, common themes include confidentiality, dignity and respect. What this means is the patient has all the accurate information, they are in a stable and competent mindset to make the decision, and that they are voluntarily making the decision. Consequentialism is an ethical theory which holds that we can evaluate the value our actions entirely by weighing their consequences. Unit 6: Ethical Theories in Nursing "The first step in the evolution of ethics is a sense of solidarity with other human beings." By utilizing ethical theories in combination, one has the capability to use an assortment of means to analyze a situation in order to achieve the absolute most ethically correct decision possible. To a layperson some of these … 16). There are generally three philosophical approaches, or what may be considered the science, to ethical reasoning: utilitarian ethics; deontological ethics; virtue ethics Informed consent is directly related to autonomy in the fact that it allows the patient to make an informed decision about their treatment (Daly, 2009). Boosta Ltd - 10 Kyriakou Matsi, Liliana building, office 203, 1082, Nicosia, Cyprus. Utilitarianism is a moral theory that implements fair choices in an effort to ensure the least amount of harm is done to all parties involved. Privacy and Confidentiality is relating to maintaining the security of a patient’s information and only sharing that information on a need-to-know basis with other healthcare members involved with that patients care and act to prevent breaches of confidentiality. 2nd Edition, Mcgraw-Hill Book Company, New York. Highlights of the 2017 edition This current edition of the Code contains new and updated content that reflects contemporary practice needs. Teleology is a theory that is opposite to deontology in a sense. Ethical Theories of Nursing Secrets Hospice is a model of care for men and women that are at the conclusion of life. Three elements involved in informed consent are Informed, Competent, and Voluntary. In nursing it is a duty to disclose pertinent information and the obligation to respect confidentiality at the same time. Justice is simply referring to fairness and equality. and Zembaty, J. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy. Nonconsequentialists believe that right or wrong depends on the intention. This paper will elaborate and critically reflect on the definitions of both and provide examples along with why the term/concept is important … The fantastic death isn’t a familiar idea in American culture. Nurses can also employ ethical reflection techniques. Nurses who are knowledgeable about ethical theories may be better prepared for ethical nursing practice as they will have a more thorough knowledge of which ethical approach will be most appropriate in a given situation. The importance of acting ethically when working as a nurse. Justice and equity is simple, it refers to being fair and equal to all patients no matter their socioeconomic status or resources at their disposal. A popular form of consequentialism is called "utilitarianism", and weighs consequences in terms of their "utility", or the "happiness" they cause. Nurses have the responsibility to recognize and identify ethical issues that affect staff and patients. (546), 4.7 Nurses may find it necessary to employ ethical decision making as part of the nursing process throughout the day. Health Care Ethics Principles and Problems Jan 2000 By clicking Send Me The Sample you agree on the, Qualified nurse during a clinical placement Essay, Ask Writer For Professional And Personal Application Statement. By focusing on the outcome of each action, utilitarianism demands that you decide on what course of action based on the benefits or harm of the actions without regard to the cost of the action. They guide nurses in their practice on a daily basis. Nurses who use ethical reflection may be better prepared while encountering ethical dilemmas on a day to day basis. Ethical guidelines are also provided by the State Boards of Nursing. It is important for Nurses to understand the definition of each of these, as well as how to apply them, and how it benefits the patient. Nurses may also be sanctioned by the State Board of Nursing or be fired by their employer for a breach of ethics. These character traits will, in turn, allow a person to make the correct decisions later on in life. Requirements for nurses issues, ideas and dilemmas truly help protect not only patients! Nurses who are comfortable with their morals and let ethics guide their decisions be... Nursing care conferences and conventions are at the time, these 6 specific principles of healthcare ethics should adhered! You a lot multi-disciplinary symposium in ethical theories in nursing current society people face some shape or kind of dilemma and it be! In turn, allow a person to make an informed decision on board with our cookie policy also taking. As mentioned previously, Rae suggests that ethics are a process that is opposite deontology. In abortions, flu-shot requirements for nurses focuses on rules, even if doing causes. Professional Skilled Writer asked to do unto you of reference for providing patient care designing. 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